Friday, July 26, 2013

Periodic Table of Vitamins

With new gimmcky health products hitting the shelf daily, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish those that are beneficial from those that are not.

As an essential source of nutrients, vitamins do play an important role in our health. Below is a guide of the important vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, and some tips on where they can be found.

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are vitamins A,D,E,K and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement.
  • Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may develop a deficiency disease. For example, if you don't get enough vitamin D, you could develop rickets. Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. Vitamin A prevents night blindness.
  • The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take a daily multivitamin for optimal health. However, high doses of some vitamins can make you sick.
There are 13 essential vitamins. That means they are needed for the body to function. They are:
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
  • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
  • Vitamin B3 (niacin)
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Biotin
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate (folic acid)
Vitamins are grouped into two categories:
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue.
  • Water-soluble vitamins must be used by the body right away. Any left over water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

Function

Each vitamin has specific functions. You can develop health problems (deficiency disease) if you do not get enough of a particular vitamin.
Vitamin A - helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin.
Vitamin B6 - is also called pyridoxine. The more protein you eat, the more vitamin B6 is needed to help the body use protein. Vitamin B6 helps form red blood cells and maintain brain function, among other things.
vitamin B12 -  like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It also helps form red blood cells and maintain thecentral nervous system.
vitamin C -  also called ascorbic acid, is an antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums. It helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue. It also promotes wound healing.
vitamin D - is also known as the "sunshine vitamin," since it is made by the body after being in the sun. Ten to 15 minutes of sunshine 3 times a week is enough to produce the body's requirement of vitamin D. However, many people living in sunny climates still do not make enough vitamin D and need more from their diet or supplements. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium, which you need for the normal development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones. It also helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium  and phosphorous.
vitamin E -  is an antioxidant also known as tocopherol. It plays a role in the formation of red blood cells and helps the body use vitamin K.
Vitmin K -  is not listed among the essential vitamins, but without it blood would not stick together (coagulate). Some studies suggest that it helps promote strong bones in the elderly.
Biotin -  is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol.
Niacin -  is a B vitamin that helps maintain healthy skin and nerves. It is also has cholesterol-lowering effects.
Folate -  works with vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells. It is necessary for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function. Any woman who is pregnant should be sure to get enough folate. Low levels of folate are linked to birth defects such as spina-bifida. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid.
Panthothenic Acid -  is essential for the metabolism of food. It is also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol.
Riboflavin -  (B2) works with the other B vitamins. It is important for body growth and the production of red blood cells.
Thiamine  (B1) helps the body cells change carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells.

Food Sources

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS-
Vitamin A:
  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Cream
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Cod
  • Halibut fish oil
Vitamin D:
  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Margarine
  • Cream
  • Fortified milk
  • Fish
  • Oysters
  • Cereals
Vitamin E:
  • Wheat germ
  • Corn
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Olives
  • Spinach and other green leafy vegetables
  • Asparagus
  • Vegetable oils and products made from vegetable oils, such as margarine
Vitamin K:
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Spinach
  • Soybeans
  • Cereals
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Folate:
  • Green, leafy vegetables
  • Fortified foods
Niacin (B3):
  • Dairy products
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Lean meats
  • Nuts
  • Eggs
  • Legumes
  • Enriched breads and cereals
Pantothenic acid and biotin
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Dairy products
  • Whole-grain cereals
  • Legumes
  • Yeast
  • Broccoli and other vegetables in the cabbage family
  • White and sweet potatoes
  • Lean beef
Thiamine (B1):
  • Fortified breads, cereals, and pasta
  • Whole grains
  • Lean meats
  • Fish
  • Dried beans
  • Peas
  • Soybeans
  • Dairy products
  • Fruits and vegetables
Vitamin B12:
  • Meat
  • Eggs
  • Poultry
  • Shellfish
  • Milk and milk products
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Citrus fruits and juices
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes
  • Broccoli
  • Turnip and other greens
  • Sweet and white potatoes
  • Cantaloupe
Most other fruits and vegetables contain some vitamin C; fish and milk contain small amounts.

Side Effects

Many people think that if some is good, a lot is better. This is not always the case. High doses of certain vitamins can be poisonous. Ask your doctor what is best for you.

Recommendations

The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine establish recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for vitamins. The recommendations reflect how much of each nutrient you should receive on a daily basis, based on the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy people.
The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.
Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).

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